divzeroweb

2f30.org website
git clone git://git.2f30.org/divzeroweb.git
Log | Files | Refs | README | LICENSE

commit f92d5f88257ab106b2837ff4293aa19122ca987f
Author: lostd <lostd@2f30.org>
Date:   Wed Feb 19 16:21:51 +0200

New version of the website

Diffstat:
Makefile | 46++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
README | 10++++++++++
config.sh | 30++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
css/bootstrap.min.css | 7+++++++
divzerokey.png | 0
divzerokey.svg | 113+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
favicon.ico | 0
footer.dhtml | 18++++++++++++++++++
guides.shtml | 8++++++++
guides/icecast.md | 192+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
guides/openvpn.md | 89+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
header.dhtml | 30++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
home.shtml | 7+++++++
lectures.shtml | 19+++++++++++++++++++
lectures/lecture0.shtml | 188+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
lectures/lecture1.shtml | 195+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
lectures/lecture2.shtml | 145+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
lectures/resources/handshake.png | 0
lectures/resources/internet.png | 0
lectures/resources/layers.png | 0
lectures/resources/osi.png | 0
lectures/resources/topologies.png | 0
lectures/resources/turing.png | 0
lectures/resources/unix_a4.pdf | 0
preamble.html | 12++++++++++++
radio.css | 11+++++++++++
radio.shtml | 10++++++++++
27 files changed, 1130 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile @@ -0,0 +1,46 @@ +# divzero + +NAME=divzero +TARG=/var/www/$(NAME) +BASE="/" +#BASE="$(PWD)/" # uncomment for devel only + +DHEADER=header.dhtml +DFOOTER=footer.dhtml +SHEADER=header.shtml +SFOOTER=footer.shtml + +.SUFFIXES: .dhtml .shtml .md .html + +MENUPAGES=home.html lectures.html guides.html radio.html +PAGES=$(MENUPAGES) \ + lectures/lecture0.html \ + lectures/lecture1.html \ + lectures/lecture2.html \ + guides/openvpn.html \ + guides/icecast.html +EXTRA=css divzerokey.png favicon.ico index.html \ + lectures/resources + +all: $(PAGES) + ln -sf home.html index.html + +.shtml.html: $(DHEADER) $(DFOOTER) + cat $(DHEADER) | ./config.sh $@ $(BASE) $(MENUPAGES) > $(SHEADER) + cat $(DFOOTER) | ./config.sh $@ $(BASE) $(MENUPAGES) > $(SFOOTER) + cat $(SHEADER) $< $(SFOOTER) > $@ + rm $(SHEADER) $(SFOOTER) + +.md.html: $(DHEADER) $(DFOOTER) + cat $(DHEADER) | ./config.sh $@ $(BASE) $(MENUPAGES) > $(SHEADER) + cat $(DFOOTER) | ./config.sh $@ $(BASE) $(MENUPAGES) > $(SFOOTER) + markdown $< | cat $(SHEADER) - $(SFOOTER) > $@ + rm $(SHEADER) $(SFOOTER) + +install: all + tar -cvf $(NAME).tar $(PAGES) $(EXTRA) + mkdir -p $(TARG) + tar -xf $(NAME).tar -C $(TARG) + +clean: + rm -f $(PAGES) $(SHEADER) $(SFOOTER) $(NAME).tar index.html diff --git a/README b/README @@ -0,0 +1,10 @@ +This is a simplistic website generator that consists of: + + * Makefile + * config.sh + * header.dhtml + * footer.dhtml + +The `Makefile` includes implicit rules for markdown and html source +content files. The `config.sh` script acts as a preprocessor for a set +of global names, such as the `${}` diff --git a/config.sh b/config.sh @@ -0,0 +1,30 @@ +#!/bin/sh + +# Usage: config page base [menuitem ...] + +PAGE=$1 +NAME="ctx->$(echo ${PAGE%.*} | sed 's|/|->|g')" +shift +BASE=$1 +shift +MENUPAGES="$@" + +for P in $MENUPAGES +do + I=$(basename $P .html) + if [ $P == $PAGE ] + then CUR=' class="active"' + else CUR='' + fi + if [ -n "$MENU" ] + then SEP="NEWL" # the newline hack + fi + MENU="$MENU$SEP<li$CUR><a href=\"$BASE$P\">$I</a></li>" +done + +sed "s|\${PAGE}|$PAGE|" | \ +sed "s|\${NAME}|$NAME|" | \ +sed "s|\${BASE}|$BASE|" | \ +sed "s|\${MENU}|$MENU|" | \ +sed "s|$SEP|"'\ +|g' diff --git a/css/bootstrap.min.css b/css/bootstrap.min.css @@ -0,0 +1,7 @@ +/*! + * Bootstrap v3.1.1 (http://getbootstrap.com) + * Copyright 2011-2014 Twitter, Inc. + * Licensed under MIT (https://github.com/twbs/bootstrap/blob/master/LICENSE) + */ + +/*! normalize.css v3.0.0 | MIT License | git.io/normalize 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+</html> diff --git a/guides.shtml b/guides.shtml @@ -0,0 +1,8 @@ +<p>Just some notes on various useful tasks.</p> + +<ul> +<li><a href="guides/openvpn.html">openvpn</a>: +Configuring an OpenVPN proxy on OpenBSD</li> +<li><a href="guides/icecast.html">icecast</a>: +Using icecast and mpd for web radio on OpenBSD</li> +</ul> diff --git a/guides/icecast.md b/guides/icecast.md @@ -0,0 +1,192 @@ +### Using icecast and mpd for web radio on OpenBSD + +The goal of this guide is to show a simple yet powerful web radio setup. +There is a radio stream server (typically with high bandwidth) and a +number of music players that are the main source of music. At most one +player can be live at any given moment. The server broadcasts the +stream of the live music source while at the same time providing a +fallback stream when no source is live. The fallback stream can be an +always-on random playlist. This way the radio listeners are transferred +to the live stream when it becomes available and back to the fallback +when it stops. + + +#### Configuring the radio server + +First things first, on the radio server you will need: + + $ pkg_add icecast mpd mpc + +Then, copy the sample configuration file that ships with icecast: + + $ cp /usr/local/share/examples/icecast/icecast.xml.dist \ + /var/icecast/icecast.xml + +Edit the configuration file to your liking, but make sure you include +the following, because this is the part that implements the fallback +playlist logic. + + <mount> + <mount-name>/play.ogg</mount-name> + </mount> + <mount> + <mount-name>/live.ogg</mount-name> + <fallback-mount>/play.ogg</fallback-mount> + <fallback-override>1</fallback-override> + </mount> + +To run icecast do `/etc/rc.d/icecast start`. + +Now lets configure the mpd music player to be the never-ending loop +playlist on the server that feeds the fallback stream. The important +thing in `/etc/mpd.conf` is the following part: + + audio_output { + type "shout" + encoding "ogg" + name "myradio" + host "localhost" + port "8000" + mount "/play.ogg" + password "changeme" + bitrate "128" + format "44100:16:2" + } + +To run the music player daemon do `/etc/rc.d/mpd start`. +All is ready at the server side. To automate the starting of programs +on boot add the following to your `/etc/rc.conf.local` configuration: + + pkg_scripts="icecast mpd" + +Now, simply create playlists using an mpd client like `mpc` +and put the player in random and repeat mode. You can also use +a simple 10-second crossfade effect: + + $ mpc random on + $ mpc repeat on + $ mpc crossfade 10 + +To make all these settings persistent accross mpd restarts (and reboots) +set the `state_file` option in `mpd.conf`: + + state_file "/var/spool/mpd/mpdstate" + +By now you should be able to listen to the `/play.ogg` stream by using +the `/live.ogg` mount point that is located at +`http://myradio.example.com:8000/live.ogg`. You can test it from a +client host with mplayer installed like this: + + $ mplayer "http://myradio.example.com:8000/live.ogg" + +If you experience connectivity problems from the outside world, the +easiest way to resolve them is adding the wildcard IP address to the +`icecast.xml` configuration: + + <listen-socket> + <port>8000</port> + <bind-address>0.0.0.0</bind-address> + </listen-socket> + +Otherwise, you can create an additional `listen-socket` node and specify +the IP address of your public network interface. + + +#### Configuring the radio sources + +A music source only needs a player with icecast support, so simply +install mpd and ncmpc, a nice curses mpd client. + + $ pkg_add mpd ncmpc + +Again, the relevant portion of the configuration file is shown here: + + audio_output { + type "shout" + encoding "ogg" + name "myuser@myradio" + host "localhost" + port "8000" + mount "/live.ogg" + password "changeme" + bitrate "128" + format "44100:16:2" + } + +Notice that the only difference with the server is the mount point and +the name. By convention the name includes the user that is currently +live. It is crucial for the `bitrate` and `format` options to be the +same with the `/play.ogg` source for the fallback trick to work. +Furthermore, you see that the `host` option is still set to `localhost`, +but no icecast is running on the source machines. This is on purpose, +and the idea is to use an ssh tunnel between the radio server and the +music source to avoid transmitting plaintext passwords. This is done +like this, where `myradio.example.com` is the hostname of the server: + + $ ssh -N -L8000:localhost:8000 myradio.example.com + +The above command forwards port 8000 on `localhost` to port 8000 on the +`myradio.example.com` machine. If you do not want an interactive +session you can also use the `-N` switch, but that's optional. Once the +tunnel is created and mpd is in playback state it becomes the live +playing source that is streaming on the `/live.ogg` mount point. No +other source can take the lock while the live stream is active. + + +#### Final considerations and metadata handling + +If all worked-out well so far you have a working radio setup that +supports both live broadcasting and a fallback loop playlist. You +should only publish the location of the live mount point because +listeners that use the fallback mount directly will continue to listen +to this stream even if the live one comes up. That is: + + http://myradio.example.com:8000/live.ogg + +In order to use metadata in other services, icecast provides an XSLT +interface to write scripts. For a list of all available options you can +put the following code in `/var/icecast/web/all.xsl`: + + <xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"> + <xsl:output method="xml"/> + <xsl:template match="*"> + <xsl:copy-of select="."/> + </xsl:template> + </xsl:stylesheet> + +This dynamically generated XML document is visible at +`http://myradio.example.com:8000/all.xsl`. For example, if you need a +text-only representation of the currently playing song you could use +something like the following in a file of its own, and access it +likewise: + + <xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"> + <xsl:output method="text"/> + + <xsl:template match="/icestats"> + <!-- only show the first source --> + <xsl:apply-templates select="source[1]"/> + </xsl:template> + + <xsl:template match="source"> + <xsl:choose> + <xsl:when test="title or artist"> + <xsl:if test="artist"><xsl:value-of select="artist" /> - </xsl:if> + <xsl:value-of select="title" /> + </xsl:when> + <xsl:otherwise>Unknown</xsl:otherwise> + </xsl:choose> + </xsl:template> + + </xsl:stylesheet> + +This is a rather complex example that tests the existence of artist and +title metadata in order to construct a valid string at all times. The +important thing here is the use of the `<xsl:value-of select="title" />` +construct. Furthermore, the `source[1]` hack ensures that only one (the +first) mount point is selected, so it displays either the live or the +fallback stream's information and not both. + +Cheers! + +lostd@ diff --git a/guides/openvpn.md b/guides/openvpn.md @@ -0,0 +1,89 @@ +### Configuring an OpenVPN proxy on OpenBSD + +First of all install the needed tools: + + $ pkg_add openvpn openvpn_bsdauth + +Now create a minimal PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), +comprised by a CA (Certificate Authority) and the server +certificate. You can also create client certificates but we will +use password-based authentication for the clients here. +The easiest way to do this is to use the `easy-rsa` scripts. +You can find it in `/usr/local/share/examples/openvpn/easy-rsa/1.0/`. +Simply copy the whole directory in your home in order to work on it. +You should edit the `vars` file to match your site and do the following: + + $ . vars + $ ./build-ca + $ ./build-key-server server + $ ./build-dh + +All generated keys are put in the `keys/` subdirectory. +The configuration files below reference them, so use them as needed. +Put the following in your `/etc/openvpn/server.conf`: + + # net + dev tun0 + server 10.8.0.0 255.255.255.0 + push "dhcp-option DNS 8.8.8.8" + push "redirect-gateway def1" + + # system + daemon + user _openvpn + status /var/log/openvpn + verb 3 + + # keys + ca /etc/openvpn/ca.crt + cert /etc/openvpn/server.crt + key /etc/openvpn/server.key + dh /etc/openvpn/dh1024.pem + + # auth + client-cert-not-required + username-as-common-name + script-security 3 system + auth-user-pass-verify /usr/local/libexec/openvpn_bsdauth via-env + + # misc + duplicate-cn + persist-key + persist-tun + keepalive 10 120 + +Add this line to your `/et/pf.conf` to perform NAT, +where `em0` is your external interface: + + pass out on em0 from 10.8.0.0/24 to any nat-to (em0) + +Enable IP packet forwarding in `/etc/sysctl.conf` or: + + $ sysctl net.inet.ip.forwarding=1 + +Add all users that need to authenticate to the `_openvpnusers` group +by altering `/etc/group`: + + _openvpnusers:*:596:lostd,dsp + +Finally, to automate the service starting create the `/etc/hostname.tun0` +file to contain the following: + + up + !/usr/local/sbin/openvpn /etc/openvpn/server.conf + +A sample client OpenVPN script that uses the service is +shown below, where `ca.crt` is the CA certificate: + + client + dev tun0 + remote catway + ca ca.crt + auth-user-pass + +The server has the hostname `catway`, which should by convention +exist at the `/etc/hosts` file. + +Cheers! + +lostd@ diff --git a/header.dhtml b/header.dhtml @@ -0,0 +1,30 @@ +<!DOCTYPE html> +<html> +<head> +<title>division by zero</title> +<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8"> +<meta name="keywords" + content="UNIX,OpenBSD,C,C++,Exploits,Security,Hacking"> +<meta name="description" content="A new approach to UNIX security."> +<link rel="stylesheet" href="${BASE}css/bootstrap.min.css"> +</head> +<body> + +<div class="container"> + +<div id="header"> +<h1> +<a href="${BASE}"> +<img src="${BASE}divzerokey.png" alt="Division by Zero"> +</a> +</h1> +<p>Pissing off kiddies since 1337 B.C.</p> + +<ul class="nav nav-tabs"> +${MENU} +<li><a href="http://git.2f30.org/">code</a></li> +</ul> +</div><!-- #header --> + +<div class="container"> +<h2>${NAME}</h2> diff --git a/home.shtml b/home.shtml @@ -0,0 +1,7 @@ +<p> +Welcome to <em>division by zero</em>. +This place will become our <a href="home.html">home</a>.<br> +We represent a group of scientists, hackers and other +<a href="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/purity.png">misfits</a>. +</p> +<p>You can reach us through the freenode IRC network at #2f30.</p> diff --git a/lectures.shtml b/lectures.shtml @@ -0,0 +1,19 @@ +<p>Sometimes we say stuff to some at some places.<br> +Find some of them here somewhere.</p> + +<p> +<em>UNIX</em> courses by dsp@. +<!-- Held each Saturday at 17:00 @ Chania/Starbucks. --> +</p> + +<ul> +<li><a href="lectures/lecture0.html">lecture 0x00</a>: +Introduction to computation, hardware and UNIX +</li> +<li><a href="lectures/lecture1.html">lecture 0x01</a>: +Meeting the $SHELL +</li> +<li><a href="lectures/lecture2.html">lecture 0x02</a>: +How the Net works, Networks +</li> +</ul> diff --git a/lectures/lecture0.shtml b/lectures/lecture0.shtml @@ -0,0 +1,188 @@ +<h3>Introduction to computation, hardware and UNIX</h3> + +<h4>Turing Machines</h4> +<p> +A theoretical machine that performs actions on an infinite tape. +These actions +</p> +<ol> +<li>Can be determined by the value of the symbols on the tape.</li> +<li>Include at least: reading/writing of the tape symbols, +printing symbols.</li> +</ol> +<p> +In the above context +the first introduces the "configuration" parameters, and +the second introduces the "behaviour" at a given "configuration". +The group of all the configurations and their transitions is called +the state transition table, and if drawn as a diagram, it is called +the state transition diagram. +</p> +<img src="resources/turing.png" alt="Universal Turing Machine"> +<p>Some examples follow. +In the format STATE, READ, DO, GO (P means Print, * means anything). +</p> + +<p>A machine that writes 0s:</p> +<pre> +s1, *, P0, s1 +</pre> + +<p>A machine that writes 0s and 1s:</p> +<pre> +s1, *, P0, s2 +s2, *, P1, s1 +</pre> + +<p>A tape negator (means it does 100100110001 -> 011011001110):</p> +<pre> +s1, 1, P0, s3 +s2, 0, P1, s3 +s3, *, R, s1||s2 +</pre> +<p>(means s1 OR s2, since it depends on the next symbol)</p> + +<h4>Universal Turing Machines</h4> +<p> +We said that since these state transition tables, can be written on +the tape, we could create a machine that has 2 tapes; from one we +read the instruction (program code) and on the other one we execute it. +therefore we have a Turing machine that can 'run' other machines. +The Turing machine, that can run all possible other machines, is called a +Universal Turing Machine. +</p> + +<h4>Understanding the relation to modern computers</h4> +<p> +To have a "computer" we need at least a CPU and some kind of memory. +Then the relation is straightforward. Code running on the CPU is +the state transition table, which accounts for the "behaviour" of the system. +Memory takes the place of the infinite tape, which determines +(by what it contains) the "configuration" of the system. +</p> + +<h4>Operating Systems</h4> +<p> +In this context what can an operating system be? +Well, it is EVERYTHING between this previous image of a "computer" and +what you experience in everyday life. +This means, it is up to the operating system to introduce and +implement the way that you control the machine. +It is what connects your idea of a FILE object named myfile that you can +myfile.open(), myfile.read(), myfile.delete(), myfile.write(). +But as you can imagine, for this to be implemented we need to connect +two pretty different things: +</p> +<ul> +<li>The code that says: +<em>What IS a file? Where does it live? What can I do on it?</em></li> +<li>The code that does: +<em>SIGNAL: HARD DISK ACESS AT *0xD474, READ 0xF BYTES.</em></li> +</ul> +<p> +And this mess is just for simple files ;) +</p> + +<h4>UNIX</h4> +<p> +Well the UNIX engineers (most notably Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Bill Joy) +understood, that in order to bring such a diverse pair close, they needed +Abstraction by Interfaces. This is actually a DESIGN PATTERN found not only +in computer programs, but in nature also (Societies, Simple Machinery, onions?). +So they designed UNIX to be a Multi-User, Multi-Tasking, Structured +Operating System. +</p> +<ul> +<li> +Multi-User means that by introducing the notion of different users +you bring security into play (remember the non-secure-windows example). +</li> +<li> +Multi-tasking means that you simulate the parallel execution of +<em>stuff</em>(TM) therefore keeping <em>users</em>(TM) happy! ;) +For example, you can watch a movie while reading your e-mail, +although on a single-processor system only one operation is performed at a +cycle (well more or less...). +</li> +<li> +Structured means it gets easy to operate on it, +since the way it is structured provides extra information about it. +</li> +</ul> +<img src="resources/layers.png" alt="OS layers"> + +<h4>The Unix Filesystem</h4> +<p> +The UNIX filesystem controls the way that information in files and +directories is stored on disk and other forms of secondary storage. +It controls which users can access what items and how. +The filesystem is therefore one of the most basic tools for enforcing +security on your system. +</p> +<p> +Information stored in the UNIX filesystem is arranged as a tree structure +of directories and files. The tree is constructed from directories and +subdirectories within a single directory, which is called the root. +Each directory, in turn, can contain other directories or entries such as +files, pointers (symbolic links) to other parts of the filesystem, +logical names that represent devices (such as <em>/dev/tty</em>), +and many other types. +Remember! Everything in UNIX is a file, so you can do pretty cool things... +(like reading thermal data from a sensor device (an external thermometer) +by using the <em>cat</em> command (which just prints a file) +on the device file that represents the thermometer +(let's say it is <em>/dev/sensor2</em>). +Then we would do <code>cat /dev/sensor2</code> and the command would print the +temperature as reported by the thermometer, in a human readable format). +</p> + +<h4>Some programs to get you started (with examples)</h4> +<p><strong>ls</strong>: List contents of directory</p> +<pre><code>% ls -al +% ls -alh +% ls -al /bsd +</code></pre> +<p><strong>man</strong>: Prints manual of other commands</p> +<pre><code>% man ls +% man ssh +% man man +</code></pre> +<p><strong>cd</strong>: Change directory</p> +<pre><code>% cd /etc +% cd /home/user # which is also cd ~, or just cd +</code></pre> +<p><strong>pwd</strong>: Print working directory</p> +<pre><code>% cd /var +% pwd +/var +</code></pre> +<p><strong>cp</strong>: Copy a file</p> +<pre><code>% cp myfile newfilecopy +% cp -r mydir/ mynewdir/ +</code></pre> +<p><strong>rm</strong>: Remove a file</p> +<pre><code>% rm oldstupidfile +% rm -rf oldstupiddirectory/ +</code></pre> +<p><strong>ps</strong>: View system processes</p> +<pre><code>% ps -ax # view all processes +% ps -xU luser # only luser's procs +</code></pre> +<p><strong>more</strong>: Read a file</p> +<pre><code>% more mytext # view mytext, press space for next page +</code></pre> +<p><strong>grep</strong>: Search for something somewhere</p> +<pre><code>% grep Password secretfile # find if secretfile contains the word Password +</code></pre> +<p><strong>su</strong>: Become super-user (or another user)</p> +<pre><code>% su # need to enter root password +% su - userA # become userA +</code></pre> + +<p> +Have a gift! +A <a href="resources/unix_a4.pdf">poster</a> filled with history! +</p> + +<p>Happy Hacking...</p> +<p>dsp@</p> diff --git a/lectures/lecture1.shtml b/lectures/lecture1.shtml @@ -0,0 +1,195 @@ +<h3>Meeting the $SHELL</h3> + +<h4>What is a shell anyway?</h4> + +<p> +Well a shell is just a program, but a very special one... +It is the primary method of interfacing a computer with you, the user. +Let's think for a moment an analogue in everyday life... +Imagine a car. That's a hell of complicated machine. +It has all sorts of stuff in it. +But an everyday driver, only needs some parts of it in order to drive . +These are the wheel, the pedals, the gearshift and the display. +Using only these four, you harness the full power of a modern car. +This common setup, completely hides the differences between each car. +Therefore it is a method of <em>INTERFACING</em>. +You get that face in every car without having to know about engine details, +manufacturer tricks and dead bodies in the trunk ;). +Well a shell acts in a similar way. It presents you with an input field +where you can enter the names of commands to be run (programs) and commands +to the shell (the running program). This second option, implies the art of +<em>SHELL SCRIPTING</em>. +The method of programming the way the shell behaves. +</p> + +<h4>Types of shells</h4> +<p> +If the shell is such an important program, +why haven't you seen one in Windows? +Well you have. Based on our definition "Windows Explorer" is kind of a shell. +Meaning it let's you execute basic operations (copy, delete, rename) on files. +But it would be a shame to call this idiotic thing a shell. +So let's move one to some real ones ;). +UNIX usually has many shells to offer to the user, +letting him choose the one that he prefers. +But for everyday usage, all act with the same UNIXy way. +They execute commands, redirect I/O (input/output) and are programmable. +The most widely used shells in UNIX currently are: +</p> +<ul> +<li> +<em>C Shell</em> (csh, tcsh). +The C shell was developed by Bill Joy, the creator of the vi text editor, +at the University of California, Berkeley.He based parts of the syntax +of the C programming language. +That's why the C shell is beautiful to write shell scripts in. +Specially if you are fluent in writing some C code. +</li> +<li> +<em>Bourne Shell</em> (sh, bash). +This was the first shell written. It was was coded at Bell Labs +by Stephen Bourne. Usually it is the standard shell a system ships with. +</li> +<li> +<em>Korn Shell</em> (ksh). +Having nothing to do with the band KORN, ksh was written by David Korn +who was again in Bell Labs, during the early 80s. +It is the standard shell of OpenBSD :). +</li> +</ul> +<p> +To find out what kind of shell you are using in your UNIX system, you can run: +</p> +<pre><code>% env | grep SHELL +</code></pre> + +<h4>Redirection</h4> +<p> +Most processes initiated by UNIX commands write to the standard output +(the terminal screen) and many take their input from the standard input +(the keyboard). There is also the standard error where processes write +their error messages, by default, the terminal screen. +Remember the cat command that writes the contents of a file to the screen. +<code>cat myfile</code> prints the contents of myfile. +Now write the cat command without any argument. +Then type a few words on the keyboard and press the <kbd>Return</kbd> key. +Finally hold the <kbd>Ctrl</kbd> key down and press <kbd>d</kbd> +(written as <kbd>^D</kbd> for short) to end the input. +What has happened? +If you run the cat command without specifying a file to read, +it reads the standard input (the keyboard), and on receiving +the "end of file" (<kbd>^D</kbd>), copies it to the +standard output (the screen). +</p> +<p> +In UNIX, we can redirect both the input and the output of commands. +For output redirection we use the > operator. +For example, to create a file called animalist1 +containing a list of animals type: +<pre><code>% cat > animalist1 +chicken +cow +moose +^D +</code></pre> +<p>Press <kbd>Return</kbd> after each animal name +(<kbd>Ctrl</kbd> <kbd>D</kbd> to stop). +</p> +<p> +What happens is the cat command reads the standard input (the keyboard) +and the > redirects cat's output, which normally goes to the screen, +into a file called animalist1. To read it's contents type: +</p> +<pre><code>% cat animalist1 +</code></pre> +<p> +For input redirection we use the < operator. +For example take the command sort which alphabetically or numerically +sorts a list. Type: +</p> +<pre><code>% sort +goths +vikings +windows users +visigoths +ostrogoths +^D +</code></pre> +<p> +Type in the names of some barbaric tribes. +Press <kbd>Return</kbd> after each one. +The output will be: +</p> +<pre><code>goths +ostrogoths +vikings +visigoths +windows users +</code></pre> +<p> +As usual, Windows users are the lowest of them all, even alphabetically. +Using < you can redirect the input to come from a file rather than +the keyboard. For example, to sort the list of barbarians, +that you now have in a file called barblist type: +</p> +<pre><code>% sort < barblist +</code></pre> +<p> +The sorted list will be output to the screen. +To output the sorted list to a file, type: +</p> +<pre><code>% sort < barblist > barblist-sorted +</code></pre> +<p> +The final ace up our sleeves is the | symbol (PIPE). +This takes the output of one command and sends it as an input to the other. +Examples: +</p> +<p>Print the number of files in the current directory.</p> +<pre><code>% ls | wc -l +</code></pre> +<p>Print those file names containing the string old.</p> +<pre><code>% ls | grep old +</code></pre> + +<b>A taste of things to come</b> +<p> +Write the following script into a file (name it script.sh), +then run <code>chmod +x ./script.sh</code>. +This gives to the file script.sh permission to be executed +(<code>man chmod</code> for info). +<code>./script.sh</code> runs the script (notice the <em>./</em>). +</p> +<pre><code>#!/bin/sh +count=0 +for file in `ls` +do + count=`expr $count + 1` + echo "$count: $file" > menu_file +done +echo "Please select a number from this menu" +cat menu_file +read choice +echo "Thanks you chose $choice" +filename=`grep $choice menu_file | cut -f2 -d:` +echo "You chose $filename" +</code></pre> +<p> +Observe this script. Can you understand what it does? +Try to change the line +<code>echo "$count: $file" > menu_file</code> to +<code>echo "$count: $file" >> menu_file</code>. +Then run it multiple times... Can you see the bug? ;) +<p> + +<p>Finally, some useful links:</p> +<ul> +<li> +<a href="http://www.unix-manuals.com/tutorials/vi/vi-in-10-1.html"> +Vi Tutorial</a></li> +<li><a href="http://cb.vu/unixtoolbox.xhtml"> +One of the most complete references around</a>. We will use this a lot.</li> +</ul> + +<p>Until next time... ;)<br>Happy Hacking...</p> +<p>dsp@</p> diff --git a/lectures/lecture2.shtml b/lectures/lecture2.shtml @@ -0,0 +1,145 @@ +<h3>How the Net Works, Networks</h3> + +<h4>Networks</h4> +<p> +In this session we introduced some very basic networking ideas and setups. +The most common types of any planar network of nodes to connect +is displayed below. +</p> +<img src="resources/topologies.png" alt="Network topologies"> + +<p> +Internet noawdays as it came to be, seems an almost fully connected network. +The interesting thing though is that apart from the physical connection, +we implement protocols that define the behaviour of network flow in our +fully connected graph. +</p> + +<h4>Protocols</h4> +<p> +Protocols define the way data is transmitted. +But since computers are machines, we need both hardware protocols +(the media layers, things done on circuitry: Physical, Data Link, Network) +and software ones (Transport, Session, Presentation and Application). +</p> +<img src="resources/osi.png" alt="The OSI model"> + +<h4>TCP/IP</h4> +<p> +TCP provides acknowledge connection-oriented communications and +provides guaranteed delivery proper sequencing and data integrity checks. +If errors occurs during transmission, TCP is responsible for retransmitting +the data back. FTP which stands for File Transfer Protocol is an example +of a TCP/IP service that depends on TCP. +</p> +<p> +IP is Internet Protocol and is an unreliable connectionless protocol. +This means that the internet protocol does not verify that a specific +packet of data has reached its destination. +The sole function (or role) of the IP protocol is to transmit TCP/IP. +Where TCP is there to check that the information went through. +Think of this: a truck driver has to deliver 50 tons of paper +to a paper company. +The driver is TCP. +The load is IP. +The driver is there to make sure that the load gets to the paper company. +</p> + +<h4>ThreeWay (handshake)</h4> +<p> +We already said that TCP ensures the integrity of our network session. +So it records the progress of our communication by having a number +that is increased after the completion of each dialogue. +To start the connection a handshake ensures the initial "agreement". +</p> +<img src="resources/handshake.png" alt="TCP three-way handshake"> +<p> +After that they keep ACKnowledging and increasing the number, +until one sends FIN (end) or RST (reset). +Now if a packet gets lost, by either endpoint, +it can request from his partner to retransmit it. +</p> + +<h4>Private IP ranges</h4> +<p> +The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved +the following three blocks of the IP address space for local networks: +</p> +<pre> +10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 +172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 +192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 +</pre> + +<p> +The most common use of these addresses is in residential networks, +since most Internet Service Providers (ISPs) only allocate +a single routable IP address to each residential customer, +but many homes have more than one networked device, +for example, several computers and a video game console. +In this situation, a NAT gateway is usually used to enable Internet +connectivity to multiple hosts. +Private addresses are also commonly used in corporate networks, +which for security reasons, are not connected directly +to the Internet. Often a proxy, SOCKS gateway, or similar devices, +are used to provide restricted Internet access to network-internal users. +In both cases, private addresses are often seen as enhancing security +for the internal network, since it is difficult for an Internet host +to connect directly to an internal system. +</p> + +<h4>NAT</h4> +<p> +NAT is the process of modifying network address information in +datagram (IP) packet headers while in transit across a +traffic routing device for the purpose of remapping one IP address +space into another. Most often today, NAT is used in conjunction with +network masquerading (or IP masquerading) which is a technique +that hides an entire IP address space, usually consisting of private +network IP addresses behind a single IP address in another, often public, +address space. This mechanism is implemented in a routing device that uses +stateful translation tables to map the "hidden" addresses +into a single IP address and readdresses the outgoing +Internet Protocol (IP) packets on exit so that they appear to originate +from the router. In the reverse communications path, responses +are mapped back to the originating IP address using the rules +("state") stored in the translation tables. +</p> + +<h4>BGP</h4> +<p> +Important nodes that connect vast networks with other vast networks +(central internet routers) need extra protocols if they are to be efficient. +The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the protocol backing +the core routing decisions on the Internet. It maintains a table of +IP networks or 'prefixes' which designate network reachability among +autonomous systems (AS) (Europe/Greece are one larger and one smaller +autonomous systems). +</p> + +<h4>Application Layer</h4> +<p> +OK, all these are really interesting but mostly non important. +How does a UNIX system access the whole Internet? +Since everything in UNIX is a file +(like devices which are interfaced as files), +and specific system functions that operate on these device files +(like socket() and connect()) can create even more files, +our "virtual" internet session is represented as a file +(that we just write to and read from). +We can understand why BSD sockets (this framework) took the early +Internet by storm and is even today the de facto way to exchange data on any +Operating System (yes, even Winlose95) ;). +To know how to control these things from your code, +you must read the excellent book of Richard Stevens: +<cite>Unix Network Programming</cite>. +</p> + +<p> +Finally, when we said fully connected, we meant it. Here is a part of it +visualised by the <a href="http://opte.org/">Opte</a> project. +</p> +<img src="resources/internet.png" alt="Internet's visualization"> + +<p>Happy Hacking ;)</p> +<p>dsp@</p> diff --git a/lectures/resources/handshake.png b/lectures/resources/handshake.png Binary files differ. diff --git a/lectures/resources/internet.png b/lectures/resources/internet.png Binary files differ. diff --git a/lectures/resources/layers.png b/lectures/resources/layers.png Binary files differ. diff --git a/lectures/resources/osi.png b/lectures/resources/osi.png Binary files differ. diff --git a/lectures/resources/topologies.png b/lectures/resources/topologies.png Binary files differ. diff --git a/lectures/resources/turing.png b/lectures/resources/turing.png Binary files differ. diff --git a/lectures/resources/unix_a4.pdf b/lectures/resources/unix_a4.pdf Binary files differ. diff --git a/preamble.html b/preamble.html @@ -0,0 +1,12 @@ +<HTML> +<head> +<title>division by zero</title> +<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/listing.css"> +</head> +<BODY> +<div id="header"> +<h1> +<a href="/">2f30.org</a> +</h1> +<p>Pissing off kiddies since 1337 B.C.</p> +</div> diff --git a/radio.css b/radio.css @@ -0,0 +1,11 @@ +/* hack for icecast iframe to link back here */ +body { + margin: 0; +} +table { + font: 96% sans-serif; + color: #aaaaaa; +} +td { + padding-right: 2ex; +} diff --git a/radio.shtml b/radio.shtml @@ -0,0 +1,10 @@ +<p> +This is the status page of our web radio station. +The stream of music bytes is here: +<a href="http://radio.2f30.org:8000/live.ogg"> +http://radio.2f30.org:8000/live.ogg</a>. +</p> + +<h3>Now playing</h3> +<iframe src="http://radio.2f30.org:8000/divzero.xsl"> +</iframe>